Suicide And Substance Abuse

Suicide is the deliberate ending of one’s own life through one’s own actions. Considered one of the nation’s greatest health epidemics by many in the medical field, suicide is one of the top leading causes of death in the United States, especially among young people. In 2020, suicide was among the top 9 leading causes of death for people ages 10-64. Suicide was the second leading cause of death for people ages 10-14 and 25-34. In 2020, 45,979 Americans died of suicide.

The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is available to you for free, all hours of the day and night, at 988.

Suicide, addiction, and depression have a very close and interconnected relationship. More than 90% of people who fall victim to suicide suffer from depression, have a substance use disorder (SUD), or both. Depression and substance abuse combine to form a vicious cycle that all too often leads to suicide. Many who experience such severe depression (as a result of Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and other conditions) frequently turn to drugs, alcohol, gambling, and other risky behaviors to numb their pain and/or alleviate their negative feelings.

However, substance abuse and addiction actually increase the severity and duration of depressive episodes, despite any temporary relief they may provide, actually greatly increasing the likelihood of suicidal thoughts (suicidal ideation). This is exacerbated by the fact that addiction frequently damages or destroys familial, professional, personal, and financial relationships, further increasing the risk of suicide. Even worse, many substances severely impact judgment, leading to suicide attempts.

Causes Of Suicide

Every case of suicide is dramatically different, as are its causes. In most cases, there is no single cause, but rather a large number of contributing factors.

Some of the most common risk factors for suicide include:

  • Thoughts about dying
  • Previous suicide attempts
  • Depression
  • Drug and alcohol abuse
  • Family/Community history of suicide
  • Family history of violence and/or sexual abuse
  • Previous incarceration
  • Presence of firearms in the home
  • Violent behavior towards others

Of all the factors associated with suicide, only depression (66% of people who fall victim to suicide are dealing with depression at the time) is more closely correlated than substance abuse. Individuals with a substance use disorder are nearly 6 times as likely to attempt suicide at some point in their life. Among veterans, men with a substance use disorder are more than twice as likely to fall victim to suicide, and women with a substance use disorder are 6.5 times as likely to fall victim to suicide.

Opioids And Suicide

Of all addictions, perhaps none is more likely to result in suicide than Opioid addiction. In 2020, over 68,630 Americans died from an Opioid overdose. Due to the nature of overdose, it is impossible to know how many of these deaths were accidental and how many were suicides. Men with an Opioid use disorder were twice as likely to fall victim to suicide, and women with an Opioid use disorder were 8 times as likely to fall victim to suicide. Opioid use is associated with a 40%-60% increased likelihood of suicidal thoughts and a 75% increased likelihood of suicide attempt. Some studies suggest that Opioid and injection drug users are 13 times as likely to die by suicide.

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Suicide Warning Signs

Every person who contemplates suicide is dramatically different, as are the warning signs they exhibit. Some exhibit many “classic” warning signs for a long period of time before falling victim to suicide, and some exhibit essentially no warning signs publicly. It is very rare that any 1 person will exhibit a full range of warning signs, and many who do exhibit warning signs never attempt, much less fall victim to suicide.

The most common warning signs for suicide include:

  • Expressing a desire for death
  • Expressing a feeling of being trapped
  • Acting agitated or anxious
  • Reckless behavior
  • Isolation from friends and family
  • Avoiding social situations
  • Abandoning hobbies or other sources of enjoyment
  • Insomnia
  • Heavy drug and alcohol use
  • Extreme irritability
  • Hopelessness
  • Sudden decrease in work or academic performance

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Suicide Prevention

Of all the possible ways to lose a loved one, many find suicide to be the most painful. Because of the assumption that suicide is a choice, many who are left behind feel that they could have done something to stop it. This leaves an overwhelming sense of guilt and self-blame in addition to loss.

It is important to know that if you have lost someone to suicide, it was NOT your fault; they likely suffered a condition or circumstances unseen. However, if you suspect someone you love might be contemplating suicide, it is equally important to get them help immediately. Luckily, there are many organizations dedicated to the prevention of suicide and countless resources available to you. Many of these options are free. In general, immediate therapy should be sought for anyone experiencing suicidal thoughts.

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Because substance abuse so greatly increases the risk of suicide, 1 of the most critical steps in suicide prevention is overcoming any addictions and getting sober. This will alleviate the depression and related mental health symptoms of the individual who is experiencing suicidal thoughts and improve their short-term judgment. It will also allow mental health professionals to more accurately assess and diagnose any underlying mental health concerns so that they can be properly treated.

If you or a loved one are having thoughts of suicide, it is imperative that you seek help immediately. The National Suicide Prevention Lifeline is available 24/7 at 800-273-8255. To explore rehab options, contact a treatment provider today.



Jeffrey Juergens

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  • Jeffrey Juergens earned his Bachelor’s and Juris Doctor from the University of Florida. Jeffrey’s desire to help others led him to focus on economic and social development and policy making. After graduation, he decided to pursue his passion of writing and editing. Jeffrey’s mission is to educate and inform the public on addiction issues and help those in need of treatment find the best option for them.

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Reviewed by Certified Addiction Professional:

David Hampton

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  • A survivor of addiction himself, David Hampton is a Certified Professional Recovery Coach (CPRC) and a member of the National Association of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Counselors (NAADAC).

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